Terms Used in Jewellery
An alloy refers to a metal created by combining two or more metals. The new metal will have some properties of both metals used to create it. Gold jewellery is typically crafted from an alloy of gold with copper, silver, nickel or zinc. Similarly, silver jewellery is crafted from an alloy of silver and copper, brass or bronze. The resulting alloys are harder, more durable and may have a different color from the initial metal.
Gold in its purest form is 24KT, but it is too soft to be moulded into durable jewellery. Hence pure gold must be mixed with other metals to make it harder and enable it to maintain its shape. 14KT gold refers to a gold alloy that features 14 parts of pure gold and 10 parts of another metal. Thus, approximately 58.3% of the alloy is pure gold. 14KT gold is harder than 18KT or 22KT gold but is lighter in color. Jewellery made in 14KT gold also costs less than its 18KT or 22KT counterparts. It may be expressed as 14KT, 14K or 58.3% on gold jewellery.
18KT gold is the most popular gold alloy used for making jewellery. This alloy contains 18 parts of pure gold and 6 parts of copper, zinc or nickel. In terms of percentage, 18KT gold contains 75% pure gold. 18KT gold jewellery may be stamped as 18K, 18Kt, 18KT or 75%. 18KT gold is usually used for any jewellery that is studded with precious or semiprecious gemstones. Gold with this caratage is relatively hypoallergenic but may bend or scratch easily.
Solid gold jewellery is typically made in 22KT gold. This gold alloy contains 22 parts of pure gold and only 2 parts of alloy metal. It is the purest form of gold used for jewellery. In terms of percentages, 22KT gold has 91.6% pure gold. It may be marked on jewellery as 22KT, 22K, 22Kt, 916 gold or 91.6%. 22KT gold has a vivid yellow color and is much softer than 18KT or 14KT gold. It is rarely used for designs that involve diamonds or other precious gemstones.
American diamonds are synthetic, man-made diamonds. They are also known as Cubic Zirconia. These crystals are created using zirconium dioxide and look similar to real diamonds. However, there are a few prominent differences between real diamonds and American diamonds. Unlike real diamonds, American diamonds are not scratch-proof and they do not retain heat. They refract less light as compared to real diamonds and are approximately 50% heavier than their natural counterparts. American diamonds have a much lower price point as compared to real diamonds.
An anklet is a piece of jewellery that can be worn around the ankle. In India, it is also known as a payal, pajeb, pattilu, and nupur. This ornament usually takes the form of an ornamented chain with hooks or clasps at both ends. The thickness of the chain and the elements used to ornament it vary according to design. Some designs may also feature sonorous bells that chime as you walk. An anklet may be worn only on one ankle or on both. In certain parts of India, anklets have cultural significance.
The aquamarine stone is a blue-green beryl that derives its name from the Latin word for seawater. This is a semi-precious stone and can be found in colours ranging from light blue to sea green. Aquamarines are also pleochroic in nature i.e. they display different colours when viewed from different angles. This gemstone is the official birthstone for March. Brazil is the leading aquamarine producer, but it is also mined in India, USA, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria. The largest aquamarine mined to date weighed 110kgs.
Bail or bale refers to the top loop of a pendant through which the pendant can be attached to a chain. This is normally placed in the center of a pendant. Bails are usually mass manufactured and attached to a pendant only after it has been made. They are available in many different designs, shapes, and sizes.
A ring of uniform width is known as a band. Bands usually have no raised elements and may or may not feature gemstones. Some bands such as wedding bands may be left plain with no ornamental elements. Others may feature intricate cut out designs or engraved designs. If a band is set with gemstones, the stones are usually the same or similar size. Wedding bands are the most common example of this type.
A bead is a small object that has been pierced through and through. This hole allows it to be strung on a chain, wire or cord. Beads can be made from gemstones, glass, wood, metal, shell etc. Beads are usually round but can be found in other shapes as well. The size of a bead can range from less than 1 mm to over 1 cm in diameter. They may have a smooth surface or be enhanced with etched or engraved designs.
Bead setting refers to a way in which gemstones may be set in a piece of jewellery. This is usually used to showcase gemstones in a series or continuous row. This setting involves making a small hole in the metal into which the gemstone is placed. Tiny bits of metal are then placed over the edges of the gemstone. A beading tool is then used to make the metal look like a bead. Bead setting was first made popular in the late 1800s.
The bezel setting is said to derive its name from ‘Bezalel’, the makers of the Biblical Ark of the Covenant. This setting involves moulding thin strips of metal to the contours of the stone and placing the gemstone into the bezel. The gemstones are them locked into position by burnishing the metal over the edges of the stone. This type of setting may be used for faceted stones or cabochons.
A blemish refers to defects on the surface of a diamond, pearl or any other precious gemstones. This could be in the form of a crack, spot, pit, hole, dull spot, chip, bump or a wrinkle. They may not always be visible to the naked eye. Blemishes affect the clarity of a gemstone and thus influence its value as well.
Bloodstone is a type of chalcedony. It is available in two forms - plasma and heliotrope. Plasma bloodstone is opaque and deep green in colour. It may be dotted with bright red spots resembling blood. These red spots are caused by the presence of iron oxide. Heliotrope bloodstone is transparent and red in colour. Both forms of bloodstone may have a waxy or glassy lustre. This gem is the traditional birthstone for people born in the month of March. It is found mainly in Brazil, India, Australia, China, USA, Russia, and Germany.
Blue Topaz is a semiprecious stone and one of the most popular variants of topaz, a silicate mineral. The presence of iron or chromium can make topaz appear blue. Exposure to heat can also be responsible for the blue hues of the stone. Blue topaz is available in a number of shades ranging from pale blue to a bright, vivid blue. This gemstone is pleochroic i.e. it shows off different colours depending on the angle it is viewed from. The stone can be found in very large size and when polished, it is slippery to touch. It is the birthstone for people born in December.
The brilliance of a gemstone indicates the intensity of colourless light emitted out of the stone. Simply put, it refers to the brightness of the stone. This depends on the way the stone has been cut and the different facets have been polished. If a diamond is cut too deep or too shallow, the refraction of light will make the stone appear dull and lower its brilliance.
This is one of the most popular cuts for a diamond. A diamond or any other precious gemstone cut in such a way has exceptional brilliance and therefore, it is said to have a brilliant cut. The shape of a brilliant-cut gemstone resembles a cone with a large face through which the refraction of light can be maximized. A brilliant cut consists of 58 facets including the culet with 33 facets on the crown and 25 facets on the pavilion. The facets on the girdles are not included in this count. This cut is generally preferred when the raw gemstone is mined in the form of an octahedron.
Carat or ct is one of the 4Cs used to evaluate a gemstone. It is a misconception that carat refers to the size of a gemstone. It actually refers to the stone’s weight. One carat is equivalent to 200 milligrams. It can also be divided into 100 points where each hundredth of a carat is termed a point. The relationship between carat and size may be different for each type of gemstone. For example, a ruby is heavier than a diamond and hence a 1 carat ruby may be smaller than a 1 carat diamond. The price of a diamond typically increases with the carat size, but it is also determined by the cut, clarity, and colour of the stone.
This is a type of setting for mounting diamonds and gemstones. A channel setting is renowned for its clean, well-defined edges. This type of setting involves suspending gemstones between two strips of metal known as channels. In the traditional channel setting, notches are cut into the channel for each stone. The modern channel setting may feature a groove instead. When set this way, no metal is visible between the gemstones which, in turn, give a visual impression that the gemstones are floating. The channels may be taller than the gemstones or be flush with the face of the gemstones.
The term charm refers to a small object that can be worn on a necklace, bracelet or anklet. They usually symbolise significant events in the wearer’s life. Charms may also be worn to keep evil spirits away. They may be made of gemstones, shells, beads, metal, stone, bone, wood etc.
Citrine, a semi-precious stone, is a type of quartz that ranges from being pale yellow to brownish orange in color. It derives its name from the French word citron meaning lemon. Traces of iron are responsible for the color of this semi-precious stone. It is a hard gemstone that may be found in large sizes. However natural citrine is rare. This may be cut into fashionable, unusual shapes for jewellery. Citrine stones are affordably priced and are the birthstones for people born in November.
Clarity is one of the 4Cs on the basis of which a precious gemstone may be graded. This refers to the degree to which imperfections are present in a diamond or gemstone. Gemstones with a low level of clarity have apparent imperfections while those with a high clarity have imperfections that may be visible only under a microscope. These imperfections could be in the form of surface blemishes or inclusions. A 10x magnifier is used to determine a stone’s clarity. Depending on the clarity of a diamond, it may be graded on an 11 point scale as I to FL with I being the lowest. The clarity of a diamond or gemstone impacts its price to a considerable extent.
A clasp is a device that helps join two ends of a bracelet, necklace or anklet together. It can be manually opened and closed. There are many different types of clasps. The lobster clasp is the most popular amongst them. Many pieces of jewellery also use the spring ring clasp and the S hook clasp. Clasps are usually hidden from view.
A cocktail ring is a large, 3-dimensional ring that may be set with precious or semi-precious gemstones. These rings are usually worn to parties and are not considered practical for everyday wear. Cocktail rings became popular in the Prohibition Era as a symbol of female independence. These rings may feature a single large gemstone with a unique cut or a cluster of smaller stones. They may be worn on any finger excepting the ring finger on the left hand.
The color of a diamond is one the 4Cs used to determine its price. The color of a white diamond ranges from being colourless to having a yellow or brownish tinge. On the basis of its color, a diamond of the normal colour range can be graded from D to Z with Z being the bottom of the scale. The more colourless a diamond is, the greater its value will be. Fancy coloured diamonds are graded on a different scale. Color is hard to detect after a stone has been set as it will be influenced by the reflection of the metal color.
Since pure yellow gold is unsuitable for making fine jewellery, it is often mixed with other metals to form more durable and stronger alloys. The metals used to harden gold and form the alloy may influence its color. Alloys created with copper could appear pinkish. This is known as rose gold or pink gold. The amount of copper added determines the shade of gold. An alloy created with equal amounts of copper and gold is known as red gold. Similarly, an alloy created by combining gold with nickel or palladium could appear white in colour and is known by the name white gold. White gold and pink gold are valued on the same scale as yellow gold.
Coral refers to the skeleton of certain marine invertebrates or polyps. Its colour can range from being pinkish white to a blood red hue. The deeper the color, the higher the value of the coral will be. Corals are usually fashioned as beads or set as a cabochon. Large corals are rarely used in jewellery. In their raw form, corals may appear dull but when polished, they can have a rich lustre. This shine may fade with time. Corals are also sensitive to acids.
The method of replicating the natural process by which a pearl is created was invented by a Japanese man named Kokichi Mikimoto in 1893.Cultured pearls are pearls created by manually introducing an irritant into an oyster or mollusc in a controlled environment so that it can become the nucleus of a pearl. This irritant could be in the form of a grain of sand, bead or a piece of shell. Over time, the mollusc secretes layers of nacre to cover the irritant and forms a pearl. Cultured pearls can be classified as fresh-water pearls and sea-water pearls.
The cut of a gemstone is one of the 4Cs used to determine its value. The cut of a gemstone refers to its proportions. This influences the gemstone’s brightness, refraction of light, and sparkle. The ideal cut of a gemstone is one that shows off most brilliance without too much wastage. A smaller, well-cut diamond can often command a higher price than large, poorly-cut stones. Diamonds can be graded as poor, fair, good, very good and excellent on the basis of the way they are cut. More often than not, the term cut also refers to the shape of a gem. Round, oval, cushion, princess, marquise, emerald, and trillion are some of the popular cuts used for shaping gemstones.
The depth of a diamond is one of the two factors that influence its cut. This refers to the total height of the diamond from the tip of the pavilion to the table. This has a direct impact on how light bounces off the facets of the stone. If a diamond is too shallow, the light will pass through the stone and it will appear dull. Similarly, if the diamond is very deep, the stone’s sparkle will be compromised and it will appear smaller than its carat weight. A diamond’s total depth divided by its width determines its depth percentage.
A diamond is a precious gemstone made up of 99.95% carbon. The remaining 0.05% trace elements determine the color, clarity and crystal shape of the diamond. Diamonds are formed when carbon is put under extremely high pressure and temperature at a depth of about 100 miles below the earth’s surface. It is the hardest natural substance and can be cut only by another diamond. Diamonds are valued on the basis of 4Cs or cut, clarity, color, and carat. This gemstone is the birthstone for people born in April and used to mark 75th wedding anniversaries.
A drop refers to a teardrop-shaped ornament. A drop can dangle from a necklace, pendant or earring. They hang just below the base of these pieces of jewellery and hence their range of movement is very limited.
Embossing is an ornamentation technique where a pattern is pressed onto a sheet of plain metal so as to leave a relief pattern. An embossed pattern is raised from the surface of the metal as compared to an etched or engraved pattern. Embossing is usually used to ornament pendants, earrings, and bracelets.
Emeralds are precious gemstones that were first mined in Egypt in 3500BC. This is a type of beryl, the colour of which ranges from greenish blue to a green. The color of an emerald is influenced by trace elements present within it such as iron, chromium, and vanadium. It is a hard gemstone and the birthstone for people born in the month of May. Clear emeralds are rare and hence their clarity does not affect their value as much as it does for other gemstones. Emeralds have a low density and hence a 1-carat emerald will appear larger than a 1-carat diamond. They are most commonly cut in a rectangular step cut because of their crystal structure.
Enamel jewellery is categorized as non-precious jewellery. Enamel can be used to create earrings, pendants, rings, bracelets, and necklaces. This refers to a glass paste or powder that is fused to the metal using heat. Baking this material creates a glass-like surface. In some cases, enamel may have a translucent finish. Enamel is available in a range of colours and therefore is ideal for making colourful jewellery without using gemstones. The colours depend on the metal oxides present and the temperature at which it is fused to metal.
The term engraving refers to a technique of ornamenting metal. Engraved jewellery features a pattern that has been cut out of metal using hand tools or a drill. In some cases the gouged out area may be filled with coloured enamel. The practice of engraving is often used to inscribe on the inside of a ring or the back of a pendant with dates, names or other personal details. Engravings were very popular in the mid-Victorian period.
Eternity rings can be described as a band with a series of similarly sized diamonds or other precious stones set in a continuous line. The concept of an eternity ring was created in the 1960s. Traditionally, these gemstones cover the entire circumference of the ring in an unbroken line with no beginning or end, like eternity. And that’s where the ring got its name from. Modern variants of this ring may feature gemstones only in the top half of the ring. This makes the ring easier to wear on a day-to-day basis. Eternity rings are typically used to mark a couple’s first wedding anniversary.
Filigree jewellery is made by twisting gold or silver wires into intricate patterns and soldering them in place. This may be soldered onto a sheet of metal or left as is. Some designs may also feature a combination of open filigree and backed filigree. Open filigree is finer and more difficult to make. The origins of filigree can be traced back to ancient Greece, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. In India, the state of Telangana and Odisha are recognised for their filigree work.
All parts of a piece of jewellery except the gemstones, beads, and stringing material are known as findings. This includes catches, pins, lobster claws, hooks, clasps, settings, claws, etc. The term originated from the time when jewellers had to make every element of a piece of jewellery themselves. As a precaution, they drew out a little more metal than was needed into the wire. The leftover bits of this wire were called findings. They could be used to fix an existing piece of jewellery or re-melted and reused. Today, findings are usually manufactured separately and bought at wholesale rates by jewellers.
The value of a gemstone is influenced heavily by its clarity. Any imperfections on the surface of the stone or inside it can affect the stone’s clarity. This is known as a flaw. Flaws include scratches on the surface, blemishes, chips, inclusions, fractures, spots, dull patches etc. Not all flaws are visible to the naked eye. In most cases, these can be seen only through a ten power magnifying glass.
A gemstone without any visible flaws when seen under a 10x magnifier is termed as flawless. Flawless diamonds are extremely rare. Only one in every 5000 diamonds can be said to be flawless. These stones are categorized as ‘FL’. Flawless diamonds are highly sought after by collectors and can fetch very high prices at auction houses.
A gemstone is priced on the basis of 4Cs. These are cut, clarity, color, and carat. Cut refers to the proportions and shape of the gemstone. This is often considered the most important ‘C’ as it influences the color and clarity of the stone. Clarity speaks of the presence of absence of surface blemishes and inclusions. When it comes to diamonds, the more colourless a diamond, the higher the price will be. On the other hand, for stones like emeralds, the deeper the color, the higher the price. Carat weight refers to the weight of a gemstone. One carat is equal to 200 milligrams.
Pearls that have been cultured in molluscs in rivers and freshwater lakes are known as freshwater pearls. These pearls usually have an elongated shape and have a translucent milky appearance. These are easier to produce and hence cheaper than seawater pearls. Many freshwater pearls have unique, interesting shapes. This variety of pearls is measured in terms of grains. One grain is equivalent to 0.25 carats.
Garnets are semi-precious silicate gemstones that are available in colours ranging from red and orange to green. Red garnets are the most common while green garnets are relatively rare. Red garnets do not usually have any visible inclusions. Horsetail-like inclusions in a green garnet can increase the value of the stone. Garnets are the birthstone for people born in January. This gemstone is available in a range of sizes and carat weights.
Any precious or semi-precious stones can be called a gemstone. This includes minerals such as amethyst and organic materials such as pearls and amber. Four gemstones are classified as precious gemstones. These are diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires. All other stones are termed as semiprecious gemstones. When polished, gemstones may be used in jewellery. The science of studying gemstones is known as gemmology.
The outer edge of a diamond where the crown and the pavilion meet is termed as the girdle. The width of a girdle may vary at different points along the circumference of a diamond. This may be polished smooth or faceted i.e. have a series of tiny facets that are individually polished. The way a girdle is treated usually has no effect on the diamond’s value or appearance. However, the thickness of a girdle can affect the carat weight and the cut of a diamond. Diamonds with an extremely thin girdle are also more susceptible to chipping.
Gold is a precious metal that is yellow in its natural form. Pure gold is classified as 24kt gold. This is very soft and cannot hold its shape. Hence, gold that is to be used in jewellery is alloyed with other metals. These metals include copper, silver, zinc, nickel, and palladium. Most solid gold jewellery is made of 22kt gold while pieces that feature gemstones are crafted from 18kt gold. The metal being alloyed with gold can also influence the color of gold. The most commonly used gold colours for jewellery are yellow gold, white gold, and rose or pink gold.
Gold plating is a process through which a base metal is covered with a thin layer of gold. Gold plated jewellery is cheaper as compared to gold jewellery but with time, the gold layer may wear off exposing the metal underneath. When buying ornaments plated with gold, their price is not influenced by whether the gold used is 14kt gold or 22kt gold. A piece of gold plated jewellery may be re-plated from time to time but this may be difficult for pieces with moving parts.
Grading refers to the evaluation of a diamond on the basis of its cut, color, clarity, and carat or the 4Cs. In terms of cut, a diamond can be graded as poor, fair, good, very good, and excellent. When it comes to color, diamonds are graded from D being the most colourless to Z. Diamonds that are graded as Z have a tinge of yellow. The clarity scale goes from I1, 2 and 3 to FL. Most diamonds used for jewellery are graded as VVS1 or VVS2. These diamonds have very-very slight inclusions that are not visible to the naked eye.
The total weight of a piece of jewellery is called its gross weight. This includes the weight of gemstones, precious metal, and any other elements present in it. The weight of a piece of jewellery minus the weight of gemstones and other non-precious elements is known as net weight. The price of gold for a piece of jewellery is calculated on the basis of this weight.
A series of marks or mark that is made on jewellery to certify the type of noble metal it is made of is called a hallmark. This is used to protect the consumer against being duped. Gold and silver jewellery in India is hallmarked by the BIS hallmark. A BIS stamp on a piece of jewellery means that its value has been attested by the Bureau of Indian Standards. This stamp will be accompanied by the year of mark, carat weight and the jeweller’s identification stamp.
A hammered finish can be created on both gold and silver. This can be described as having crater-like depressions on the surface. A hammered finish is popular for the way it makes the surface reflect light and gleam. It is typically achieved with hammers that have different heads. The amount of pressure with which the hammer strikes the metal and the angle at which it is struck determine the type of pattern created.
Heart Shape Cut
The heart shape can be described as a pear-haped cut with a cleft at the top. This is considered the most romantic cut for a gemstone. A heart-shaped cut is difficult to master and hence, gemstones that are cut in this way can be more expensive than others of the same carat weight. The heart shape cut is generally reserved for gemstones of a higher carat value. These gemstones are most commonly set as pendants and rings.
Hook clasps are a type of clasp used to bring two ends of a necklace, bracelet or anklet together. The clasp is shaped like a hook and hence derives its name from its shape. The most popular types of hook clasps are the hook and eye clasp and the S hook clasp. In both cases, a hook-shaped clasp is on one end of the chain and a small oval loop is at the other end. To close the necklace or bracelet, the hook must be put through the oval loop.
Earrings that are shaped like a hoop or a ring are called hoop earrings. These hoops may be left as is or decorated with charms. Hoop earrings are available in a range of sizes beginning with those that merely skim the ears to those that almost touch the shoulders. Hoop earrings first became popular in the 1960s and have become a classic style ever since. They are a very popular style of earrings for young girls. There are many different types of hoop earrings such full hoops, half hoops, huggie hoops, latch hoops, and hinged hoop, to mention a few.
The acronym IGI stands for "International Gemmological Institute". This is an organization that certifies coloured gemstone and diamond jewellery. IGI was established in 1975 and is headquartered in Antwerp. It is the largest laboratory for diamond certification. It has 17 offices worldwide including 6 offices in India. IGI also runs professional courses on gemmology.
Imperfections inside a gemstone are called inclusions. Bubbles, internal breaks, mineral deposits, internal grains, and clouds are some of the common inclusions you can find inside a diamond or gemstone. These may or may not be visible to the naked eye. Inclusions may be present from the creation of the gemstone or come into being at a later stage. In either case, they affect the clarity of the stone and its brightness. Most inclusions decrease the value of a gemstone but in some cases, they are prized. For example, spangles in amber and needles in rutilated quartz greatly add to the value of these stones.
The purity of gold is measured in terms of karats. This is also known at kts. Gold is a soft metal and hence before it can be used to make jewellery, it must be alloyed with other metals and hardened. This ratio of gold to other metals is measured in 24 karats or parts. Hence, pure gold is valued at 24 karats. This is not used for jewellery. The purest gold used for jewellery is 22kt gold. This has 22 parts of gold and 2 parts of an alloy metal. As the karat value of gold reduces, so does the price. Gold jewellery may also be made out of 18kt and 14kt gold.
Jewellery is made in many individual parts that must be soldered together to complete a design. Gold jewellery marked with a KDM stamp has been soldered with an alloy of cadmium and 92% gold. This does not affect the gold purity. However, working with cadmium is believed to be harmful for humans. Hence, it is banned in many countries. Today most jewellers have replaced cadmium with zinc or other metals. At Bluestone, we do not use KDM in our jewellery.
Matte refers to a finish that may be given to gold or silver jewellery. This involves putting very minute pits on the surface to create a non-reflective surface. These pits can be created with chemicals or with abrasive materials that can scratch off the top layer of gold. A matte finish is also known as a brushed finish.
Navaratna is a type of gemstone setting. It is created with nine gemstones, namely diamonds, rubies, emeralds, corals, pearls, sapphires, garnets, topaz, and cat's eye. Each of these stones has celestial significance and it is believed that navaratna jewellery can ensure the wellbeing of the wearer. Navaratna jewellery can be designed in the form of rings, earrings, pendants, necklaces, and bracelets. It may be worn by men and women. These gems are placed in a particular order in a piece of jewellery with the ruby – the stone that represents the sun – in the centre.
An oval cut can be described as an elongated round cut with 65 facets. The oval cut was created in the 1960s by Lazare Kaplan. This is rarer as compared to round or princess cut gemstones. The ratio of length to width can vary in an oval cut gemstone depending on the designer’s preference. Most oval cut gemstones have a bow tie effect. A small bow tie effect is considered an advantage while a large bow tie effect indicates a poorly cut gemstone.
Palladium is a soft, silvery-white metal. This is similar to platinum and shares a number of its properties. It is found in North America, South Africa, and Russia. Palladium has a high density and high melting point. Like platinum, it is highly resistant to oxidation and corrosion. When soft, it is ductile and can be easily moulded into varied shapes. It is often used to create white gold.
Pearls are organic gemstones. These are naturally created when an irritant enters a saltwater oyster or mussel. The oyster covers the irritant in layers of nacre and a pearl is formed. This process can take several years. Pearls are available in a range of colours with white being the most common. Other colours include pink, grey, blue, purple, green, black, and peach. The value of a pearl can be determined by its size, shape, lustre, color, surface quality, and nacre thickness.
A pendant is a small charm or ornament that is hung from a chain and worn around the neck. This typically hangs lower than the chain. Pendants can be made in many styles and sizes. The most common types of pendants are lockets, medallions, talismans, and ornamental pendants. They may be attached to a chain with a single bail or a double bail.
The peridot gemstone belongs to the olivine family. The color of this semi-precious stone ranges from yellowish green to brownish green. Impurities in the gemstone such as iron traces are responsible for its color. This gemstone is available in a range of sizes and mined in USA, Vietnam, China, Pakistan, Myanmar, and Finland. Grass-green peridot with no visible inclusions is said to be the best quality peridots. They can be cut in a variety of styles. This stone is the birthstone for August.
The traditional unit used to measure mass in India is known as a ratti. In the olden days, this was measured against the ratti seed. Today, the weight of a ratti has been standardised as 0.12125 gram. One ratti is also equivalent to 0.91 carats.
Rhodium is a rare metal that is part of the platinum family. It is one of the most expensive precious metals used for making jewellery. Rhodium plating refers to the practice of covering a piece of gold or silver jewellery with a thin layer of rhodium. This increases the lustre and shine as well as the durability of the jewellery piece. In the case of white gold, rhodium plating also helps hide the yellow tinge of gold and makes it appear brighter. Rhodium plated jewellery is corrosion resistant and hypoallergenic. However, the rhodium layer may wear off with time and the piece may need to be re-plated from time to time.
Synthetic gemstones are not fake stones. They can be described as manmade gemstones with the same crystal structure, chemical composition, and physical properties as a natural gemstone. A synthetic gemstone and natural gemstone of the same size will have the same weight. It is difficult to differentiate between natural gemstones and synthetic gemstones unlike you are expert in gemmology. One of the ways to tell them apart is to look for inclusions. Synthetic gemstones do not usually have any. However, finding natural gemstones without any inclusions is extremely rare.
VVS 1/VVS 2 (Very, Very Slightly Included)
The most common diamonds used for jewellery fall into the VVS1 or VVS2 category. This refers to the clarity of the gemstones. In both cases, blemishes or inclusions are invisible to the naked eye. Thus, they appear identical to diamonds of a higher grade. However, they can be seen when viewed under a 10x magnifying glass. VVS1 grade gemstones have inclusions that can be seen only from the pavilion. VVS2 grade stones have inclusions that can be seen from the crown.
Gold is alloyed with other metals to make it harder. The metals mixed with gold can also influence the color of gold. When mixed with silver, nickel, zinc or palladium, the yellowness of gold in the alloy is reduced. This alloy is known as white gold. It is valued as much as yellow gold. The ratio of pure gold to other metals determines the intensity of yellow. Rhodium or platinum plating is often used to enhance the lustre of white gold and veil the remaining yellow tint.